Land of Anbia (Prophets) is synonymous to Arabian Peninsula before the modern era, was divided into four distinct regions; Hejaz (Mecca), Najd (Riyadh), Southern Arabia (Yemen, Doha and Oman) and Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Iraq).¹ It was so called because initially Prophets (Nabi) and Messengers (Rasul) were born and preached Islamic monotheism within the peninsula. The largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 square kilometers, enclosed in the west by Red Sea and Sinai, in the east by Arabian Gulf, in the south by the Arabian Sea, which is an extension of the Indian Ocean, and in the north by old Syria and Iraq. Desert is the most prominent features, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges which receive greater rainfall. Provided with sea and land links with most nations, became the center for trade, culture, religion and art.
Geographically, present Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries; Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as well as parts of southern Iraq and Jordan.²
Descend of Prophet Adam S
History of mankind began with the descend of Prophet Adam S and Siti Hawa (Eve) from paradise to earth upon his repentance and pardoned by Allah E. The episodes were revealed in Surah (Chapter) Al Baqarah, 2:30-38 of the Noble Qur’an. The locations of descend varied and were debatable amongst Muslim scholars and historian. Deem certain strongest narrations of At-Tabari, Ibn Al-Athir, and Al-Ya’qubi indicated that the Angel Jibrail S carried Prophet Adam S to Mount Arafat, Mecca. Prophet Adam S descended with an appointment of ‘Khalifah’ (vicegerent) for generation of mankind.
Prophets and Messengers of Allah E
The total of Prophets (Nabi) and Messengers (Rasul) R sent to generations of mankind is within the knowledge of Allah the Knower of All and need no further explanation. Prophets and Messengers R brought the guidance of submission to Islamic monotheism, only one God, Allah E as his Lord and Creator of the Universe. One of Six Pillars of Iman (Faith), every Muslim, is to believe in the prophet-hood of all prophets and messengers sent by Allah E, but every Muslim need to be knowing of 25 Messengers R mentioned in the Noble Qur’an.
Appointment of Prophet Muhammad H
Prophet Muhammad H was the last of the prophets and messengers, who finalized their commission, been blessed as ‘Khatamun Nabiyyin’, the Seal of All Prophets, to guide the mankind generations until the ‘Final Hour’. Prophets and Messengers R before Prophet Muhammad H were sent to their own races, but Prophet Muhammad H was sent with the same faith for mankind.
Prophet Muhammad H was appointed with a mission to take mankind out of the darkness and polytheism into the paradise of light and monotheism and also warned them of the Day of Judgment, when everyone will have to account for his good and bad deeds, and will be recompensed for them.
The revelation in Surah Al Anbiya’ 21:107 of the Noble Qur’an, meaning: "and We have sent you (O Muhammad H) not but as a mercy for the universe (mankind, jinn and all that exists).
Prophet Muhammad H said: [“I leave you two things if you hold fast to which you will never fall into misguidance, the Book of Allah (Noble Quran) and the Sunnah (verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings of the Prophet H).”]
Hadith (describing the words, actions, or habits of Prophet Muhammad H) narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah I; [“Whoever obeys Prophet Muhammad H obeys Allah E and whoever disobeys Prophet Muhammad H, disobeys Allah E. The good is distinguished from the bad and the believers from the disbeliever”].
Islam the Religion
The various religions which have spread among mankind are distortions of this true, original religion, and are the result of tampering. People altered the beliefs, principles and injunctions of the true religion in a manner conducive to their own interests.
The revelation in Surah Âl Imrân 3:19, Allah E mentioned that there is no religion accepted with Him, except Islam, meaning: “Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam.”
There are numerous historical landmarks within Arab Peninsula indicated the places of happening, birth and graves or mausoleum erected in their memories:
a. The most significant and prominent is the ‘Kaabah’, the focal point of Muslim prayers (salat) in the Scared Mosque of Mecca and the tomb of Prophet Muhammad H in Medina. Every year, the Muslims will perform hajj pilgrimage to Mecca as the fulfillment of one of the five pillars of Islam. There are also graves of the Prophets and Messengers R in Palestine and other parts of Arab Pennisula.
b. Baitulmaqdis (Jerusalem), considered a Holy city to the three major religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Prophet Muhammad H made his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, then ascended to heaven where he met Allah E, as per the revelation in Surah Al-Isrâ (17:1) of the Noble Qur’ân:
“Glory be to Him who made his servant (Prophet Muhammad H) for a journey by night from Al-Masjidi-al-Haram (in Mecca) to Al-Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem), whose precincts we have blessed, so that We might show him our ‘ayats’ (words) (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs etc). Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.”
c. The archeological and landmarks discoveries that encompassed the presence of Messengers R; the discovery Noah’s Ark on Mount Ararat, Turkey; the ancient city of Babylon, Iraq; the dwelling caves of Thamud in Mada’in Salih, Saudi Arabia; the ancient city of ‘Ad in Uber, Oman; the exodus of Prophet Musa R with the tragic drowning episode of the Pharaoh and his army in the Red Sea; the vanished cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea.
Kitab (Books/Holy Scriptures)
Another Pillar of Islam is believing in all Kitabs or Holy Scriptures of Allah E. The numbers of Kitab is also unknown to mankind, but only within the knowledge of Allah E. There are four known Kitabs; Zabur (Prophet Daud S), Taurat (Prophet Musa S), Injeel (Prophet Isa S), and the Noble Qur’an (Prophet Muhammad H). The Noble Qur’an is a miracle from the Lord Allah E delivered to His Messenger, Prophet Muhammad H and cannot be tampered or altered until doomsday; [“Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikir (i.e. the Qur’an and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)”[Al-Hijr 15:9].
The Noble Qur’an is a confirmation of the revelation the Holy Books before it [i.e. the Zabur, the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel) have been vanished], and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws, decreed for mankind). The verses are challenges to mankind and everyone is obliged to believe in the miracles of this Noble Qur’an. More than 1400 years have elapsed and not a single word of this Noble Qur’an had been changed, although the disbelievers tried their utmost to change it in every way, but they failed miserably in their efforts. On the contrary, all the other holy books have vanished due to corruption in the form of additions or subtraction or alterations in the original text.
Descendant of Mankind Generations
Historically, the descendants of mankind were revealed in the Noble Qur’an and narrated in Islamic and Biblical literatures. The main root started from Prophet Adam S and Siti Hawa in Mecca and spread out within Arab Peninsula. The two sons, Qabil (Abel) and Habil (Cain) were requested to offer individual sacrifices to Allah E. They disputed over the proposal of cross marriages between their respective twin sisters. Allah E accepted Abel's sacrifice because of his righteousness and Qabil killed his brother because his sacrifice offering was not accepted. Another son, Prophet Seth S took over the responsibilities of prophet-hood. Later, the prophet-hood bestowed to his descendants, Prophet Idris (Khonoukh) S and Prophet Nuh (Noah) S respectively. The descendants before Prophet Nuh S perished in the great flood except the faithful followers aboard the ark. Aftermath of the great flood, the mankind generation was re-populated by his sons, Shem, Japheth, and Ham. Archeological excavation indicated the great flood was within the Plain of Mesopotamia, Iraq.
The related revelations in the Noble Qur’an: The descendants of Shem (father of the Arabs) were into two lineages; Prophet Ibrahim S and his progenies, and the Prophets Salleh, Hud and Lut R of the perished Arabs. The progeny of Prophet Ibrahim S, Prophet Ismail S flourished in Hejaz regions and Prophet Ishaq S in the northern regions of the Arab Peninsula.
The general consensus among 14th century Arabic genealogists is that Arabs tribes were of three lineage groups: ᶟ
a. The ancient Perishing Arabs were the people of ‘Ad, Thamud, Tasam, Jadis, Emlaq and others. 'Ad and Thamud perished because of their decadence. In 1990 archaeological remains of Iram, major city and inscriptions of the ‘Ad in Oman were uncovered. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide.
b. The Pure Arabs or Qahtanian Arabs from Yemen and descendants of Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan. According to Islamic tradition, they are pure Arabs, and were divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan.
c. The Arabized Arabs or ‘Adnanian Arabs originated from the progeny of Prophet Ismail S at the early beginning of Mecca settlement. Adnan was the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central Arabia. Adnan is the father from the descendant of Prophet Ismail S.
Mecca throughout History
Historically, Mecca situated along the trade caravan route from Yemen to Palestine was an unpopulated and uncultivated barren valley without any water resources. Prophet Ibrahim S came from Jordan to resettle his wife Siti Hajar and son Prophet Ismail S in this barren valley. Prophet Ismail S got married to the Jurhum clan and established the first generation of Arab Quraish, a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, descendant of Khuzaimah, the fifth generation after Adnan, the twenty-first grandfather in the series of the Prophetic ancestry. They were divided into two groups, Jurhum and Qathura. The Jurhum and Qathura managed and administered Mecca harmoniously until an internal rivalry conflict that separated them into other tribal groupings. There were rivalries among the clans that became pronounced especially during Prophet Muhammad's H lifetime.
Three miracles happened during this period; the discovery of Zam Zam water, rebuilding of the Holy Kaabah, the sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim’s S son.
Period of Ignorance (Jahilliah)
The Arab tribes of the Ignorance (Jahiliyyah) period can be described were living in the shadow of darkness where they were in state of ignorance of divine guidance from Allah E. The term is, in its deep sense used as a condition, and not as an historical period. Their culture was patriarchal, with rudimentary religious beliefs. Although there were some traces of monotheism in the ‘hanifs’ (monotheism of the Prophet Ibrahim S), mostly their religious beliefs were based on idol adorations. The beginning of the period of Ignorance in Hejaz (Mecca) region is not specified. The life of Arab society began to undergo a process of Ignorance change with Islam. The life of Arab society began to undergo a process of Ignorance change with Islam.
The existence of Messengers and Prophets R came with the responsibility to preach monotheism without any deviation from the beginning of Prophet Adam S until Prophet Muhammad H the final of all messengers, been blessed as ‘Khatamun Nabiyyin’, the Seal of All Prophets and Messenger R, to guide the mankind generations until the ‘Final Hour’.
Allah E granted mankind the authority to practice the religion of Islam. Therefore generation of mankind are obliged to carry the will of his Lord, Master of the Universe. It is indeed a blessing of Allah E to the whole world, to enlighten the criterion between truth and falsehood, and mercy of saving mankind from the worship of man to the worship of the Creator of man.
Categories: Atlas Al Quran