Abu Bakar Assiddiq الصدِّيق was born in Makkah sometime in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Tamim clan of the Quraish tribe. Abu Bakar's Caliphate lasted for a little over two years (or 27 months), ending with his death after an illness. Abu Bakar (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) (Arabic: عبد الله بن أبي قحافة); was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم . He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم death. As Caliph, Abu Bakar succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم death according to Islam. He was called Al-Siddiq (The Truthful) and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims.
When Abu Bakar was 10 years old, he went to Syria along with his father with the merchants' caravan. Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , who was 12 years old at the time, was also with the caravan. In 591 at the age of 18, Abu Bakar went into trade and adopted the profession of cloth merchant, which was the family's business. In the coming years Abu Bakar traveled extensively with caravans. Business trips took him to Yemen, Syria, and elsewhere. These travels brought him wealth and added to his experience. His business flourished and he rose in the scale of social importance. Though his father, Uthman Abu Quhafa, was still alive, he came to be recognized as chief of his tribe. His office was something like the office of an honorary magistrate.
Like other children of the rich Makkah merchant families, Abu Bakar was literate and developed a fondness for poetry. He used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory and had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics.
On his return from a business trip to Yemen, he was informed that in his absence Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم declared his prophethood. Not long after, Abu Bakar accepted Islam and was the first person outside the family of Muhammad to openly become a Muslim. Abu Bakar served as a trusted advisor and close friend to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , he was involved in several campaigns such as the Battle of Uhud, the Battle of the Trench, the Invasion of Banu Qurayza, Battle of Khaybar, the Conquest of Makkah, the Battle of Hunayn, the Siege of Ta'if, and the Battle of Tabuk where he was reported to have given all of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. He also participated in the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah and was made one of the witnesses over the pact.
Abu Bakar's full name is 'Abd Allah ibn 'Uthman ibn Aamir ibn Amr ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Tamim ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi at-Tamimi. In Arabic, the name 'Abd Allah' means (servant of God). Although he is most known by his title 'Abu Bakar', he has many other titles. One of his titles was 'atiqe' (the saved one) and he was known by this title before Islam. Muhammad confirmed this title later when he said that Abu Bakar is the 'atiqe' (the one saved from hell fire by God). He was called 'Al-Siddiq' (the truthful') by the Prophet after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj when other people didn't, and Ali confirmed that title several times.
Abu Bakar's acceptance proved to be a milestone in Prophet Muhammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم mission. Slavery was common in Makkah, and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection and they commonly experienced persecution. Abu Bakar felt compassion for slaves, so he purchased eight slaves(four men and four women) and then freed them, paying 40,000 dinar for their freedom.
He was mentioned in the Quran as the "second of the two who lay in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, with the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم where they hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Makkah search party that was sent after them, thus being one of few who were given direct reference to in the Quran.
Caliph Abu Bakr's empire at its peak, 634.
Khalifat-ul-Rasūl - (Prophet's successor)
Reign 8 June 632 – 23 August 634
Born c. 573 - Makkah, Arabia
Died August 23, 634 (aged 61) - Medina, Arabia
Other titles Assiddiq الصدِّيق , Companion of the Cave
Categories: Rashidun Caliphate