UMMAYYAH CALIPHATE ERA
After the death of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, the Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون al-Khulafā’u r-Rāshidūn) is a term used to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. The first caliph to be called Amir al-Mu'minin was Abu Bakr Siddique, followed by Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the second of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib also were called by the same title. After the first four caliphs, the Caliphate was claimed by dynasties such as the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans.
The Umayyah Caliphate (Arabic: بنو أمية, trans. Banu Umayyah; "Sons of Umayyah") was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. After Ali’s death, Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman managed to overcome the other claimants to the Caliphate. Muawiyah transformed the caliphate into a hereditary office, thus founding the Umayyah dynasty. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca, their capital of Caliphate was Damascus. At its greatest extent, it covered more than five million square miles (13,000,000 km2), making it one of the largest empires the world had yet seen and the fifth largest contiguous empire ever to exist. After the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate, they fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031.