REIGN FROM PROPHET IBRAHIM عليه سلم
TO PROPHET MUHAMMADصلى الله عليه وسلم
Historically, location of Makkah situated along the normal carvan route from Yemen to Palestine was an unpopulated barren valley without any water resources. On Allah’s will, Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم came from Jordan to resettle his wife Siti Hajar, and son Prophet Ismail عليه سلم in this barren valley. Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم left limited supply of dates and a water bag for the wife and son. Before leaving them, Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلمprayed with the quranic verse as narrated in Surah Ibrahim : 37.
رَبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنْتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُمْ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ (٣٧)
“ O Our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivated valley by Your Sacred House (the Kaabah at Makkah) in order, O our Lord, that they may perform As -Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat). So fill some hearts among men with love towards them and (O Allah) provide with fruits that they may give thanks.”
["Wahai Tuhan kami! Sesungguhnya aku telah menempatkan sebahagian dari zuriat keturunanku di sebuah lembah (Tanah Suci Makkah) yang tidak tanaman padanya, di sisi rumahMu yang diharamkan mencerobohinya. Wahai Tuhan kami, (mereka ditempatkan di situ) supaya mereka mendirikan sembahyang (dan memakmurkannya dengan ibadat). Oleh itu, jadikanlah hati sebahagian dari manusia tertarik gemar kepada mereka, (supaya datang beramai-ramai ke situ), dan kurniakanlah rezeki kepada mereka dari berbagai jenis buah-buahan dan hasil tanaman, semoga mereka bersyukur.”]
There were three miracle happenings during this period :
a. The discovery of Zam Zam water.
b. Rebuilding of Kaabah.
c. The sacrifice of his son by Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم
Zam Zam water source was discovered when Prophet Ismail عليه وسلم was thirsty and kept crying, while Siti Hajar was desperately seeking water for her infant son, but could find none. She ran seven times back and forth in the scorching heat between the two hills of Safa and Marwah, looking for water. Getting thirstier by the second, her son, Prophet Ismail عليه وسلم stamped the ground with his heel, where suddenly water sprang out. The name of the well comes from the phrase Zomë Zomë, meaning 'to surround' the gushing water with her both hands, a command repeated by Siti Hajar during her attempt to contain the spring water. Trader’s Caravan travelling along the route get their water resupply with food supply exchange from Siti Hajar.
Later, Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلمcame back to Makkah and rebuilt the Bait-ul-Allah (House of God) near the site of the well, a building which had been originally constructed by Prophet Adam عليه وسلم, and today is called the Kaabah, a building toward which all Muslims around the world face in prayer, five times each day. The Zamzam well is located approximately 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaabah. One of the miracles of Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم was that the rock he stood on while building the Kaabah turned soft and hid feet sank in it, one can see the impressions of the feet his feet on that rock. The station of Ibrahim is the rock which Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم stood while erecting the Kaabah. His son, Prophet Ismail عليه وسلم helped him erect it, by passing him the rocks.
Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īdu l-’Aḍḥā), or "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Prophet Ibrahim عليه سلم to sacrifice his son Prophet Ismail عليه وسلم as an act of obedience to Allah, before Allah intervened to provide him with a ram to sacrifice instead. The meat is divided into three parts. The family retains one third of the share; another third is given to relatives, friends and neighbors; and the other third is given to the poor and needy.
Amongst the tribes, the clan Jurhum was attracted to settle down here due to water supply source, soon they erected their tents and start living here. Prophet Ismail عليه وسلم got married to the Jurhum and established the first generation of Arab Quraish. Later the Jurhum were divided into two groups; Jurhum and Qathura. They managed to administer Makkah harmoniously until an internal rivalry conflict separated them.
The Quraish were a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, which descended from the Khuzaimah. For several generations they were spread about among other tribal groupings. About five generations before Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , the situation was changed by Qusai ibn Kilab. By war and diplomacy he assembled an alliance that delivered to him the keys of the Kaabah, an important pagan shrine which brought revenues to Makkah because of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. He then gathered his fellow tribesmen to settle at Makkah, where he enjoyed such adulation from his kin that they adjudged him their de facto king, a position that was enjoyed by no other descendant of his. At the time of Prophet Muhammad's صلى الله عليه وسلم , birth the Quraish essentially ruled Makkah. Different responsibilities were apportioned between different clans. There were some rivalries among the clans, and these became especially pronounced during Prophet Muhammad's صلى الله عليه وسلم lifetime.