Thursday, June 16, 2011

Madinah al Munawwarrah

Posted by Hashim Abd Ghani On 5:58 PM
     

Al Nabawi Mosque - The Green Dome


( Texts extract from Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia )

Al Madinah al Munawwarah ( “The Radiant City” or  “ the Enlightened City"  ) is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Prohet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, and it is historically significant for being his home after the Hijrah. Madina is home to the three oldest mosques in Islam, namely; Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (The Prophet's Mosque),Quba Mosque (the first mosque in Islam's history), and Masjid al-Qiblatain (the mosque where the qibla was switched to Mecca). The Islamaic calendar is based on the emigration of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  and his followers to the city of Madinah, which marks the start of the Hijri year in 622 CE, called Hijra (هجرة). Similarly to Mecca, entrance to Medina is restricted to Muslims only; non-Muslims are neither permitted to enter nor travel through the city. Mecca and Madinah are the only two places where the Noble Quran was revealed.

Madina is celebrated for containing the mosque of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and also as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca). Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was buried in Madinah, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun (Rightly Guided Caliphs), Abu Bakar and Umar, who were buried in an adjacent area in the Nabawi mosque.

صلى الله عليه وسلم Tomb of Prophet Muhammad
Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib, an oasis city dating as far back as the 6th century BCE. It was later inhabited by Jewish refugees who fled the aftermath of the war with the Romans in the 2nd century CE. Later the city's name was personally renamed by Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, was changed to Madīnat(u) 'n-Nabiy (مدينة النبيّ "city of the prophet") or Al-Madīnat(u) 'l-Munawwarah ("the enlightened city" or "the radiant city"), while the short form Madīnah simply means "city." The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen of two Arab tribes named Banu Aus (Banu Aws) and Banu Khazraj. At first, these tribes were clients of the Jews, but later they revolted and became independent. Toward the end of the 5th century, the Jews lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. Eventually the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijra (migration) to Medina, they had been fighting for 120 years and were the sworn enemies of each other. The Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj. They fought a total of four wars.

Sahih Bukhari says;

“  Narrated Anas: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Madinah is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people."          



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